The Test questions
Posture and health
1. Name three major causes of spinal deformity.
2. What causes dentist's spine.
3. What is the major cause of undetectable back pain encountered
in orthopedic practice.
4. What causes postural back pain.
5. What type of spinal deformity predisposes to a variety
of pains occurring in one side of the body.
6. Why do some people experience palpitations when they lay
down in bed at night, and why is this prevented or relieved by
remaining in the sitting position, or by slowly lowering to the
7. Why do some people experience sudden sharp stabbing pains
in the lower left and right side of the chest.
8. Why do some people with lower left and right sided chest
pains think that they are having heart pains.
9. Why do some people guard their upper abdomen when their
abdomen is being prodded during some medical examinations.
10. Why do some people sometimes experience abdominal pain
when they lean forward to tie their shoe laces.
11. Why do some people feel faint when they lean toward a
desk to read or write.
12. Why do some people feel dizzy and faint when they lean
toward the kitchen sink to wash the dishes, or when they lean
toward the washing machine to load clothes.
13. Why do some people feel faint and dizzy when they squat
14. What is Erben's phenomenon.
15. Why do some people feel faint and dizzy when they bend
their neck to look up at items on high shelves.
16. Why do some people experience abdominal pain when they
are sitting and leaning forward, and experience haemorrhoidal
pain when they stand for long periods of time.
17. Why do some people who have stooped spines have a multitude
of health problems while others don't.
18. What type of chest deformity sometimes accompanies the
stooped spinal deformity.
19. What is the axis of hypochondria and what pains occur
along it and why.
20. Do you think that sitting up straight will (a) cure the
postural symptoms immediately and completely or (b) arrest the
number, frequency and intensity of symptoms (c) gradually reduce
the intensity of symptoms or (d) improve the manageability of
posturally induced symptoms or (e) prevent any new postural symptoms
or (f) sometimes create new symptoms in relation to the change
in postural focus.
21. Do you think that all postural symptoms are caused directly
by (a) mechanical factors or (b) some are caused by secondary
damage to the spine or internal structures.
22. If a person has neckache when they are young and have
been told that the pain is all in their mind and later in life
there is evidence of degenerative changes in the vertebrae of
the neck is this evidence that (a) the neck ache has always been
all in the mind or (b) that poor posture is one of the probable
causes or (c) that the degenerative changes are an unrelated
23. Would you advise young patients to (a) sit correctly as
part of a regime of ensuring good health in adult life or (b)
to slouch as much as they like because poor posture is not a
cause of chronic pain and ill health.
24. How do you prevent postural deformity (a) by sitting on
ergonomic chairs or (b) by sleeping on orthopedic bedding or
(c) by using the Alexander Technique or (d) by doing Yoga or
(e) by good nutrition or (f) by regular exercise or (g) by wearing
corsets or (h) by always carrying heavy weights in one arm or
(i) by having a debilitating illness for 6 months or (j) by having
sufficient exposure to sunlight during childhood or (k) by having
a basic understanding of the principles of biomechanics.
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25. In the nineteenth century there was an epidemic, particularly
in England and Europe, where women suffered from a multitude
of ailments dominated by the tendency to faint. Was this because
(a) there were complicated social and psychological factors which
made the majority of civilized women hysterical, or (b) the invention
of the sewing machine brought about the mass production and widespread
distribution of tight-waisted whalebone corsets which compressed
their torsos and impeded blood flow to their brains.
26. Why did the classical hysterical fainting fits which were
very common in the nineteenth century become rare in the early
twentieth century (a) because of new psychotherapeutic methods
which were effective as a treatment or (b) because corsets went
out of fashion at that time.
27. Why did corsets go out of fashion in the early twentieth
century (a) because clothes fashions always come and go or (b)
because public debates finally convinced the general community
that wearing the garment was extremely harmful to human health.
28. Why did the severe form of irritable colon known as muco-membranous
colitis become rare after 1914 (a) because it was caused by the stress
of world war 1 or (b) because it was caused by tight
waisted corsets which crushed the colon, and world war 1 brought the corset period to its final demise.
29. When women wear corsets day and night for the purpose
of giving themselves a wasp waisted appearance do their internal
organs (a) remain in their same normal shape or (b) become crushed
with some parts being pushed upwards and some downwards.
30. When women wear "training corsets" day and night for the purpose
of giving themselves a permanent wasp-waisted appearance do their internal
organs (a) keep slipping back to their normal shape and position
every time the woman removes their corset or (b) remain permanently
displaced and deformed.
31. What type of diseases would you expect women to suffer
from if they wore corsets which tightly compressed the upper
abdomen, as compared to the diseases which would occur with corsets
which compressed the lower abdomen.
32. If wearing tight shoes can permanently deform the bones of the feet, could tight
corsets deform the bones of the spine, and would the deformity
be temporary or permanent.
33. What type of skeletal deformity occurred in women who
wore high waisted corsets.
34. What type of skeletal deformity occurred in women who
wore low waisted corsets.
35. Some doctors argued that compressing the womb and ovaries
with tight waisted corsets had no effect on womens health. What
do you think.
36. If tight waisted corsets caused disease in women would
any form of tight waisted clothing have a similar effect, and
would the incidence and severity of disease be related to the
degree of tightness.
37. Were nineteenth century women frequently breathless with
emotion because they were emotionally insecure, or because they
wore corsets which deformed their chests and lungs, impaired
the function of their diaphragms, and restricted their breathing.
38. Why did nineteenth century women who wore corsets tend
to have J-shaped stomachs, and livers which were virtually split
39. Would having a vertical J-shaped stomach instead of a
horizontal steer-horn stomach be one reason why nineteenth century
women had severe digestive disorders.
40. What causes the zig-zag deformity of the colon, and why
was this deformity common in nineteenth century women.
41. Why were nineteenth century country women free of the
diseases which were epidemic in city women.
42. Why were the diseases which were common in nineteenth
century British women, virtually non-existent in the native women
of Africa and the women of some other countries such as Japan.
43. What effect did the shape of the corset have on the shape
of the spine.
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44. What type of symptoms are common during the first weeks
of pregnancy when the womb is enlarging within the pelvis.
45. What type of symptoms are common during the middle period
of pregnancy when the enlarging womb is pressing upwards against
the diaphragm and chest.
46. What type of symptoms are common during the latter weeks
of pregnancy when the womb is dropping toward the pelvis in preparation
for childbirth, and what is the sudden change of symptoms called.
47. Some pregnant women feel faint when laying on their back,
but this can be relieved if they lay on their side. Why.
48. Why do many women experience back pain during pregnancy.
49. Why do many women develop hemorrhoids during pregnancy,
and why does this condition usually subside after childbirth.
50. Why do women often experience palpitations and breathlessness
Why do some women develop high blood pressure and proteinuria
Some women experience a variety of distressing symptoms in
the weeks following childbirth when the womb is reducing toward
its normal pre-pregnancy size. Why.
If a woman is suffering from post-natal fatigue and is not
showing any signs of depression but is diagnosed as having post-natal
depression, do you think the diagnosis is justified.
In the post-natal period some women experience palpitations,
dizziness, or faintness when they lean toward the kitchen sink
to do the dishes. Why.
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1. Prolonged infection in childhood
which involves poor appetite and weight loss, rickets, infections
and injuries involving the spine, poor vision, poor ergonomics,
sustained occupational postures, pregnancy, and osteoporosis.
(any three of these - other factors may also be relevant).
2. Prolonged leaning forward at the
waist due to the persons occupation.
3. Postural back pain.
4. Spinal deformity and prolonged postures.
7. Weaknesses and tenderness in the
area due to prolonged postural pressure on the lower ribs. (pinching
8. Because they do not know the difference
between surface chest pain and deep central heart pain.
9. Because it is tender due to postural
pressure of the tip of the sternum on the upper abdomen, possibly
involving weakness in the junction of the esophagus and stomach.
10. Because the area is tender due to
injury or prolonged postural pressure, and the tenderness is
aggravated by the additional pressure caused by bending.
11. Because they have impaired circulation
which is made worse by postural pressure on the chest cavity.
12. Same as 11.
13. Same as 11, and pressure on the
back of the neck may add to the dizziness where there is some
14. Temporary slowness of the pulse
on stooping or sitting down which is a feature of some cases
of neurasthenia (the chronic fatigue syndrome).
15. Pressure on the spinal nerve in
16. Kypholordosis, where sitting and
stooping puts pressure on the upper abdomen, and standing causes
the lower back to arch forward and put pressure on the lower
back and the lower abdomen.
17. Because some people have a stoop
which only effects the upper spine, whereas others have a combination
of spinal and skeletal deformities which include forward arching
of the lower spine, sideways curvature of the spine, chest deformities,
and bowed legs etc. e.g. because when people with stooped spines
who also have narrow flat chests and lean forward their lower
ribs press down on the abdomen and the tip of the sternum stabs
the upper abdomen, whereas when people with stooped spines have
broad and deep chests and lean forward the ribs and sternum rotate
over and around the abdomen without causing the same sort of
pressure. Also because stooping forward will aggravate illnesses
and injuries which exist in some people but not others. e.g.
sliding hiatus hernia.
18. Flat chest.
19 A line between the left and right
sided chest pains which transects the location of the upper abdominal
pain which are features of hypochondria. These pains are disposed
to because the line acts as a hinge about which the torso rotates
when the person stoops.
20. (b), (c), (d), (f).
24. (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (j),
31. Diseases of the lungs, heart, and
stomach, compared to menstrual. pregnancy, and birthing disorders.
33. Rib cage deformity.
34. Pelvic bone deformity and lordosis.
35. It caused displacements of the womb
and twisting of the ovary ducts.
37. Because they deformed and compressed
38. The tight corsets squeezed the stomach
and liver into those shapes.
40. Compression of the festooned transverse
colon by corsets.
41. Because country women wore loose
clothes. (Corsets were only available in city shops).
42. Because British women wore tight
waisted corsets, whereas native African women and Japanese women
wore loose garments.
43. The spine grew into the shape of
44. Urinary frequency and other pelvic
45. Heartburn, breathlessness, palpitations,
faintness, and fatigue.
46. Relief of breathlessness and fatigue
(called lightening) followed by the onset of urinary frequency
47. This removes pressure from the vena
48. The weight of the spine drags the
lower spine forward, especially in thin women who have pre-existing
49. Because the heavy womb presses on
the rectal veins and impairs the flow of blood causing them to
bulge until after childbirth when the pressure is relieved. Constipation,
as a complication of pregnancy, also contributes to the development
50. Because the enlarging womb presses
on the diaphragm, heart, and lungs.
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